The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of quality of work-life on job satisfaction in selected public ministries in Kigali city Rwanda. This research emanates from the importance of QWL within public institutions and how it influences the employees’ job satisfaction. The study used a descriptive and correlational research designs. The study was guided by the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between QWL variables and job satisfaction. There were 203 employees of selected public institutions who participated in the study. The researcher used means and standard deviation to determine the respondents’ perceptions on their job satisfaction and quality of work-life. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was used to establish the relationship between job satisfaction and quality of work-life. By using multiple regression analysis, the research demonstrated the best predictor variables of job satisfaction within the researched ministries.
The findings revealed that the employees of public ministries tend to be positive in their perceptions of the quality of work-life in terms of working conditions, workers’ development, social integration/participation, eminence of work life, social relevance and task accomplishment. Moreover, the workers tend to be satisfied in their job. The findings revealed also that workers’ development and eminence of work-life are the best predictors of the job satisfaction. The research provided some recommendation about how the public ministries may improve the quality of work-life within workplace.
The Rwandans’ quality work-life landscape is experiencing profound continuous and rapid change due to engineered reforms and regionalization orchestrated to improve national performance both in the public and private sector. Previous reforms in the form of Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy (EDPRS I) had orchestrated profound rebirth in the economic outlook of Rwanda (World Bank, 2011) as one among other fastest growing economies in the world. The second phase of EDPRS demands a GDP growth of 11.5% in order to fulfill the Vision 2020 goal of Rwanda. In addition, the emerging new business environment is demanding new skills, cutting-edge knowledge, and more hours of work that requires managers’ adoption and adaptation to a paradigm shift to improve the employees’ quality of work life (QWL). The adoption and adaptation are presumed to satisfy both the organizational aspiration and workers’ quality of work life towards workers’ job satisfaction.
As a result, the prime role of the workers in Rwandan economy is structurally affected as more hours of work is demanded and performance (Imihigo) is over emphasized. Employees’ mindset, anxiety, behavior and meaningful balanced work-life are significantly affected (Abdeen, 2002), of which these contributors majorly to the utilization of workers’ skills, knowledge, task accomplishment, social relevance and integration (Casper, Weltman, & Kwesiga, (2007).) which are components of value addition to workers’ satisfaction. While the dictates of imihigo (performance) is a driving force, workers’ job satisfaction is a progenitor of workers’ quality of work-life (Gallie, 2003), that cushions organizational performance and nation’s sustainable economic development. Hence, the need to examine workers’ job satisfaction through the dimensions of quality of work-life using context-based work climate, existing theoretical and conceptual approaches to study the issue in Rwanda public Ministries.
Background of the Study
Work is an integral part of human civilization (Anderson, Coffey & Byerly, (2002) and life experiences has demonstrated that human existence is associated with work activities (Alexopoulos & Kalaitzidis , 2004) at different stage in man’s history. At present, the average Rwandan worker spends eight to nine hours daily in the work place, which cumulatively constitutes one third of worker’s entire life; this directly influences the overall quality of work-life. According to Wayner (2006), quality of work-life refers to employees’ perceptions of the physical work environment (climate) and the psychological well-being associated and displayed at work (Carr, Schmidt, Ford, & DeShon,2003). It further involves inclusiveness (social integration), empowering (social relevance) and engaging workers (Chan and Wyatt, 2007) in decision making opportunity with regard to their jobs (Cohen, Kinnevya, and Dichtera, 2007). This approach was expanded to include incentives design, compensation at workplaces and policies established to ensure work life balance (Desrochers, Hilton, & Larwood, 2005).
High quality of work-life (QWL) is imperative for an organization to continuously evolve and out-perform previous years, attract and retain self-managed workers (Dixon and Sagas, 2007) and satisfied employees. However, the construct of QWL differs among researchers and scholars with references to Feldman (2000) study in the multi-dimensional framework and its inter-related factors. In a similar perspective, Greenhaus, & Powell, (2006) added the component of commitment while Judge, Haim, (2003)) sustain it with personality model which Bakker and Hill, Ferris, & Martinson, (2003) demonstrated as instrumental to workers’ happiness. Lapierre, & Allen, (2006) further proposes key constructs of QWL which are higher payment, job security, better reward systems, growth opportunity and participative groups among others which Wu and Mishra & Gupta (2009), profoundly supported with evidences that commitment and job satisfaction are progenitors of QWL. The construct divergences are subject to contextual and theoretical differences among scholars and respondents’ experiences in various geographical areas. Nevertheless, the commonality among scholars is the power of quality of worklife to stimulated employees’ job satisfaction.
A satisfied employee is an asset for an organization’s productivity (Muse, Harris, Giles, & Feild, 2008); hence quality of work-life becomes a concept that is directly linked to workers’ job satisfaction (Edwards and Rothbard, 2000; and Warr, 2007). According to Dolan, Garcia, Owens, (2006), quality of work-life is a major concern for employers and how the organizationsenhance and mainstream individual’s productivity, inclusiveness (Peters&Van der Lippe, (2007), sense of belonging and pride in their work climate becomes managers’ responsibility. Scholars from various background have identified some determinants of quality of work-life which are; adequate and fair compensation (Warr, 2007), safe and healthy work environment (Rhoades and Eisenberger, 2002), opportunity for career growth and security (Warr, 2007), social integration in the workplace; freedom of speech,(Sirgy, Efraty, Siegel and Lee, 2001) and totality of life.
In light of the different construct and arguments, quality of work-life is often considered in two directions; structural removal of negative factors of work (Bauer, 2002) and working conditions (Brewer, 2005) and modification of work and working conditions to enhance the capability of employees (Brock-Utne, 2000) to promote behaviour which are important for individual and society (Brock-Utne, 2000) wellbeing. Hence, quality of work-life becomes a concept that indicates a comprehensive balance both in personal and professional life of an employee (Sirgy, Efraty, Siegel and Lee, 2001). Therefore, it absence hampers workers’ satisfaction, productivity or engineer dissatisfaction with worklife or family life as observed by (Carmeliand Freund, 2004)
From a different approach, the presence of QWL is presumed to yield job satisfaction which is instrumental in the workers’ psychological areas of self-actualization (Abdeen, 2002), internal fulfillment and task accomplishment (Edwards and Rothbard, 2007), organizational spiritualism or togetherness (Dixon and Sagas, 2007), and time optimization (Gallie, 2003). Evidences from Armstrong (2007) demonstrate that employees of organizations are the most important capital, and paying attention to their emotional and physical needs creates job satisfaction which directly impact efficiency (Cimete, Gencalp and Keskin, 2003). On the other hand, a lack of attention could lead to dissatisfaction and loss of tangible and intangible resources. Hence, Ngambi (2003) illustrates that the visible benefits of quality of work-life are job satisfaction, increased productivity, reduced absenteeism, lower rates of complaints and fewer employees turnover.
In light of these scholarly works as discussed above, an organization that is goal oriented or intends to achieve its goals, pays attention to workforce quality of work-life. The assumption is anchored on the premise that as long as the emotional and psychological needs of the employees are not satisfied, the psychological feelings of commitment will be trivialized. In Rwanda, the only valuable nature resource is the peoples, and attention, investment and management of their quality of work-life becomes the bedrock for gauging their job satisfaction and their job productivity. While labour laws and policies exist, work-life especially in the public ministries has been given little attention with reference to its instrumental role in job satisfaction.
To a relatively low extent, the Government of Rwanda has built infrastructure and institutionalized policies towards improving the quality of work-life and ensuring that jobs are of high quality. However, the experiences over the years have not shown that workers’ quality of work-life is addressed in practice. Within this cursory observation, a measure of employee job satisfaction along quality of work-life becomes a precondition to document job satisfaction and a base for policy reexamination and prescription in Rwanda public Ministries.
Statement of the Problem
Quality of work-life and workers’ job satisfaction are important elements often discussed by scholars in the field of organizational behavior, human resources management, phycology, and organizational development. However, the problem of quality of work-life is both academic and practitioners’ concern since it’s endemic and ubiquitous in Rwanda. Existing knowledge shows that an organization is a social system, whose activities are influenced by external and internal factors either positively or negatively depending on context and managerial approaches. Addressing the complexity of a changing workplace requires cross-functional coordination of activities at sub-systems and macro level. Inadequate attention to internal dynamics especially the staff’s emotional and physical needs can incubate and trigger workers’ job dissatisfaction and unfriendly work environment.
Today Rwandan business environment is not providing integrated quality of work-life environment despite the institutionalization of policies and the benefits to employees are elusive. Quality of work-life programs that entail improvement in organizational work-climate to support workers’ social integration and involvement in organizations’ activities seemed inadequate and their implementation is often uncoordinated. This has resulted into high turnover and job dissatisfaction among workers of public institutions. Also, separating and determining which characteristics affect QWL seems difficult without associating it with job dissatisfaction. The variables of QWL which are not adequately implemented by public ministries are working conditions, workers’ development, social integration or participation, eminence of work life, social relevance and task accomplishment. The combination makes it comprehensive and value addition to the academic debate among other programs designated to improve employee satisfaction, strengthening workplace learning and helping employees to learn. It is from this observation that this research addresses the issue of quality of work-life and workers’ job satisfaction in the public ministries to determine and add knowledge to existing literature. The following research questions are generated to address the aforementioned:
Based on the problem stated above this research intended to answer to the following questions:
- What is the perception of the employees from selected public ministries on the quality of work-life variables (working conditions, workers’ development, social integration/participation, eminence of work life, social relevance and task accomplishment)?
- What is the evaluation of the respondents on workers’ job satisfaction?
- Is there a significant relationship between the variables of quality of work-life (working conditions, workers’ development, social integration/participation, eminence of work life, social relevance and task accomplishment)and workers’ job satisfaction among the respondents?
- What are the variables of QWL that best predict workers’ job satisfaction?
The following null hypothesis was tested in the study:
Ho There is no significant relationship between the variables of quality of work-life (working conditions, workers’ development, social integration/participation, eminence of work life, social relevance and task accomplishment) and workers’ job satisfaction among the respondents.
The research is of importance to the researcher regarding acquaintance to theoretical and practical skills in managing of workers especially those related to quality of work-life. It further contributes to the completion of the Master’s program of UEAB, and therefore, it conveys the right of being awarded a Maser degree in Business Administration. The selected public institutions would understand the necessary information relating to staff treatment with reference to social integration and relevance, working condition, compensations, and management supervision which guides in improving human resource management in the organization.
Other external users of information such as researchers, consultants, teachers and the Government of Rwanda (GoR) will benefit from the research work in one way or another, in the sense that it provides scientific information to assist public and or private managers and management practitioners to improve on human resource management style. This study will also serve as a guide to job satisfaction and performance management (Imihigo) in particular.
Justification of the Study
The research theoretical framework is anchored on a dual constructs. The first construct focused on dimensions of quality of work-life in the work environment. The second investigates the elements of workers’ job satisfaction. These are interconnected to establish the direction of relationship that exists between the two. A combination of the variables bring into understanding a new scientific approach to quality of work-life and workers’ job satisfaction. In literature, Lau, Wong, Chan and Law (2001) measures quality of work-life as the favorable working atmosphere (Casper, Weltman and Kwesiga, 2007) that bridges and promotes satisfaction (Dixon and Sagas, 2007) through employees’ rewards, health(Gallie, 2003), career development opportunity and it’s instrumental role to organizational growth (Dolan, Saba, Jackson & Schuler, 2007).
Quality of work-life is a concept that basically influence job satisfaction mainly in the workplace (Dixon and Sagas, 2007) and Mishra and Gupta (2009) highlighted that salary, working hours, working condition, safe working environment and opportunities for advancement describes as dimensions or components of quality of work-life. Organizational research suggests that adverse working conditions result in negative health outcomes (Srivatava, 2007). Previous studies have shown that low work control, or social integration and relevance often leads to depression (Carnoy, 2000), anxiety (Thompson, & Prottas, 2006), and poor physical health (Van Daalen, Willemsen, & Sanders, 2006). The symptoms are evident of poor QWL and are instrumental to job dissatisfaction.
The work socialization perspective contends that work control is associated with positive work qualities as evident in occupational self-defectiveness, or self-management, work supportive context, work complexity, and non-routine work. These positive job features contribute to intellectual and cognitive abilities such as organizational learning, intellectual flexibility, task accomplishment, and flexible orientation toward workplace and self (Bauer, 2002; Jowi, 2003; Lapierre & Allen, 2006; Walton, 2001). These in turn redefine workers’ beliefs, habits, attitudes, and values in relations to job satisfaction or the extent of workers’ accomplish task, life success, commitment and work meaningfulness.
Administrative positions exist within social structures to determine social relevance and integration. The position influences differential amounts of status attached to individual worker depending on the value attributed to activities associated with the position. This is the result of a social construction and functional alignment. Those who hold a valued social position are prone to maintain higher levels of self-esteem and confidence, which is an important aspect of job satisfaction (Warr, 2005; Jowi, 2003; and Goris, 2003). Valued social position was found to be correlated with well-being (Wright and Bonett, 2007). This could be measured in terms of social rank or status in the workplace through individual contributions to task accomplishment (Warr, 2005). Clearly, these six dimensions of QWL overlap to a considerable degree and provide a more comprehensive treatment of workers’ job satisfaction. There is also a clear overlap with workers’ latent display or manifestation of satisfaction in the conceptual model by explaining the dynamics between the two construct.
Scope of the Study
This research focuses on the influence of quality of work life on employee’s job satisfaction among selected public institutions in Rwanda. The selected public ministries are those which are allowed to provide data to outside people. This means that some have the nature and structure of not availing the data for the security reasons. The research covers the period of 2010 to 22013.
Limitations of the study
The researcher was limited by the nature of the institutions where he was to get data. To solve this challenge the research was limited to only some selected public ministries where the access was sure.
Definition of Terms
Determinant: something immaterial (as a circumstance or influence) that contributes to producing a result.
Eminence of work life: refers to the philosophical and religious conceptions of existence, social ties, consciousness, and happiness, and borders on many other issues
Employee: A person who works in the service of another person under an express or implied contract of hire, under which the employer has the right to control the details of work performance. An employee is hired for a specific job or to provide labor and who works in the service of someone else.
Job Satisfaction: Job satisfaction is the people’s cognitive, affective and evaluative reactions towards their job.
Job: job may be defined as activity such as a trade or profession that somebody does regularly for pay
Quality of work life: is defined as the extent to which an employee is satisfied with personal and working needs through participation in the workplace activities while achieving the goals of organization.
Social integration: is the blending and unifying of social groups and workers into one organizational culture or community
Social relevance: means the worth, esteem and value workers feel with reference to the organization and or management and to a group of people
Task accomplishment: is the accomplishment of a given task measured against preset known standards of accuracy, completeness, cost, and speed.
Work: is a physical and mental effort directed towards a desired end specifically towards a living.
Worker development: is defined as a combination of social service, community supports, job training and education that positions an individual for success in the workforce.
Working conditions: refers to the working environment and aspects of an employee’s terms and conditions of employment. This covers such matters as: the organization of work and work activities; training, skills and employability; health, safety and well-being; and working time and work life balance Pay is also an important aspect of working conditions
This chapter presents the methodology that was used in data collection. Therefore, this chapter gives details on how the research was carried out. Important items to be described are: research design, population and sampling techniques, research instruments, data gathering procedures, statistical treatment of data. The thrust of this chapter was to connect the statistical aspect with the reviewed literature as they related to the unit of analysis perception.
Newman (2006) demonstrate that the research design depends on the research questions as well as the purpose of study. Research design defines the specification of methods and procedures for obtaining information and analysis. It constitutes the over-all operational pattern or framework of the research and stipulates the information to be sourced and the procedures employed (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2003).The research design for this work is descriptive and correlational design. The approach is a survey research. It is an approach that involves the methodical collecting of information to describe people’s perception, knowledge, attitudes, and behavior (Taylor and Bogdan, 2008). Advantages of adopting the survey method of research are that the researcher to get closer to the real variables, and develop a rich understanding of respondents at low cost (Zuelueta and Costales, 2003). In addition, surveys (questionnaires) can be distributed to large numbers of respondents, provide concrete, specific and unambiguous questions, and allow for statistical analysis to take place (Cooper & Schindler, 2008). Furthermore, survey research is useful for prediction and description events (Brown, 2008).
According to Adams (2007) population consists of well-defined set of elements in a total system. Employees working in some public organizations in the Republic of Rwanda were selected for the purpose of the research. The population sampling is probability, more specifically simple random and where necessary adopt stratified sampling. Probability sampling refers to the case where the probability of including each element in a sample is known (Saunders et al, 2003). Thus, this work considered only the 414 employees from 7 ministries in Rwanda which are very accessible from 12 ministries which make the GoR because 5 of them based on the nature of their operations are not accessible and cannot reveal the nature of their QWL and cannot reveal that they are satisfied or not by their job.
Sampling Technique and Sample size
The researcher used stratified sampling technique to get the sample size. This technique was adopted because all the permanent staff from the above mentioned ministries is concerned with the QWL in their respective departments. According to the technique used the researcher could not use of the whole population due to the fact that all employees were not achievable.
According to Adams (2007) a sample size is set of elements selected from a certain population for investigation purposes. There are twelve (12) public ministries in Rwanda with five impossible to access due to their nature of operations. Hence, the total number in those different public ministries becomes seven (7) organizations with (414) employees. Therefore, the selected organizations are seven ministries. Support personnel were excluded from the sample size. This approach allowed the researcher to use the stratified and random sampling technique based on managerial position and work status. The sample focused on a group of population determined by.
Where n = Sample Size
N = Population size
e = Error Term allowed (5%)
From the foregoing, the sample size was statistically determined as;
= 203 Employees (Sample Size).
Source: researcher compilation (2014)
The research used a downloaded, adapted and modified questionnaire tagged quality of work life and employees job satisfaction for the collection of data. The questionnaire was specifically designed to accomplish the objectives of the research. The first section collected information on the profile of the respondents such as age, sex, managerial status, work experience, and education level. The second section contained the items to measure quality of work life and was divided into seven parts and the eight parts is for dependent variable which is job satisfaction. The questionnaire had close-ended questions and used four Likert scales with responses ranging from Strongly Disagree=1; Disagree = 2; Agree = 3; And Strongly Agree= 4. The questionnaires were addressed to the employees of selected public ministries where the researcher got access because some ministries are not accessible for security reasons.
Validity of the Questionnaire
The role of questionnaire validity is to ensure that it tests what it was constructed to measure. In light of this understanding, Amin (2005) sees questionnaire validity along the degree to which the test actually measures or is specifically related to the traits for which it is designed. Hence, the content, face and construct validity were done by experts in the field of Management at the University of Eastern Africa Baraton (UEAB). However, the questionnaire is open to further scrutiny from scholars from other contributors. Thus, the following people have contributed to establishing the content validity of research instrument: my supervisors and UEAB Director of Research.
Reliability of the Questionnaire
The administration of the questionnaire depended on the establishment of the reliability which is conventionally subject to a pilot test. Hence, the pilot study to test the reliability of the instrument was distributed to one Public Ministry which is the Ministry of health. The pilot study included 30 employees. The reliability measure used Cronbach coefficient alpha that is done by using the mean correlation of all variables. So each variable was measured by using the following Cronbach's alpha formula:
The independent variable has five components:
Working Conditions as the first variable was tested and was found not reliable because its Cronbach’s Alpha has shown the negative result of -.045 with a mean of 19.1667, variance of 5.454, SD of 2.33538 and it had 8 statements tested. Thus, these results indicated the some statement that were deleted and after deletion the variable was minimally reliable at a level of .635, mean of 14.5000 and variance of 9.086 with SD 3.01433 and six statements remained.
The second variable tested was workers’ development which had Cronbach Alpha of .761 and 14 statement were positively tested with a mean of 40.8000, variance of 36.441 and SD of 6.03667. The third variable tested was social integration was tested with a Cronbach Alpha of .757 and 11 statements were tested with a mean of 31.0667, variance of 30.271 and SD of 5.50193. The fourth variable tested was Eminence of Work-life had a Cronbach’ Alpha of .659 which was minimally reliable and had 9 statements and 1 statement was deleted to find the reliability. It had a mean of 23.2000, variance of 17.200 and SD of 3.14729.
The fifth variable tested was social relevance had a Cronbach of .570 and 6 statements were not reliably tested with a mean of 15.7000, variance 11.114 and SD of 3.33374 and 1 statement was deleted on order to get reliability. The sixth variable tested was task accomplishment had a Cronbach of .860 and had 10 statements. It had a mean of 29.9667, variance of 31.137, SD of 5.58003 and was highly reliable.
The dependent variable was tested under item of employees’ job satisfaction, its Cronbach’s Alpha statistic has shown the result of .593, mean of 28.4333, variance was 18.185, standard deviation of 4.26439 was found and 10 items were tested. One item was deleted to raise the reliability coefficient to 0.788. Those results suggested questions to be deleted, adjustment, and reconstruction before the instrument is finally administered to the respondents.
Data Gathering Procedures
The set of data for the study was attained through self-administered questionnaires, which consisted of written questions or statements on a topic about which respondents’ opinions and judgments were sought. Importantly, the respondents completed the survey or questionnaires themselves. Prior to final completion of the questionnaires, a letter was sent to the public ministries outlining the research topic. In this letter, the nature of the research, including its duration, confidentiality, and privacy, as well as issues relating to the survey instrument was not to be shared.
Respondents in this study were entirely voluntary, and participants are free to refuse participation and respondents could discontinue their participation at any time without prejudiced. Respondents were also allowed to ask questions concerning the study at any time. The researcher attempted to keep all information collected in this study strictly confidential. Respondents were also guaranteed that if any publication results from this research, that they would not be identified by name. However, the researcher made every effort to minimize respondents discomfort in this regard. The respondents were told they would not benefit financially from the study except the recommendation and increase in knowledge.
Adams(2007) demonstrates that a number of approaches to gathering original data esixt especially primary data. Primary data is often collected through a survey using a questionnaire; therefore this research is utilizing primary data from the responding public institutions workers. In similar perspective, De Vos et al (2005) sees a questionnaire as “a method used for collecting data; written question which calls for response on the part of the respondents, either self-administered or group administrated. The decision to propose the use of a questionnaire was informed by the nature of the research which is perceptual-based, using a survey. Also, the respondents answered questions at their own time and it was cheaper to administer.
Statistical Treatment of Data
Kachigan (2006) addresses the different appraoches to data analysis usually involved reducing accumulated data to manageable size, developing summaries, looking for parttens, and applying statistical techniques. Scaled responses on questionnaires often require that researcher derive various functions as well as to explore relationship among variable. Further, researchers must interpret these findings in light of research question or determine if the results are consistency with the hypothesis and theories.
The data analysis was about the categorization, description, and synthesis of collected information. This effort is necessary for the description and interpretation of the phenomina under study since it brings order, structure, meaning to the mass of information collected. The research used of Statistical Package fo Social Sciences(SPSS) to summarize the provided information. The data was organized and coded towards data reduction. The data were also coded which meanins classifying the answers to the question into a meaning full category. This was necessary to carry out the operations of tabulating and analysing data.
Mean (M). The best known and frequently used measure of the center of the distribution of a quantitative variable is well known as the mean. The mean refers to “averaging”, adding up the data points and dividing by many there are (Franklin, 2009).
Correlation (R): is the degree of association between variables in a set of data. But, in a statistical sense, a correlation analysis usually produces a measure of the linear relationship between the two variables. Therefore, correlation analysis is closely related to regression analysis. Usually, there is a misunderstanding about the relationship between correlations and causality. Saying two variables are highly correlated does not necessarily mean that one of the variables causes the other (Aggresti & Franklin, 2009)there are three type of correlation: positive, negative, zero. With positive correlation changes in one variable are accompanied by changes in other variable and in the same direction. However, equally strong relationships, the two variables change in opposite directions. Large value on one was tends to go with smaller values on the other. This is called a negative correlation. If there were no clear tendency for the values on one variable to move in a particular direction with changes on another variable, then it could be said that the research is approaching a zero correlation (Hamilton, 2006).
The researcher acknowledges the vital role of respecting and protecting the identity, confidentiality of the respondents. In light of this the names of the respondents was not disclosed in the course of the study. The purpose of the research was communicated and how the information was utilized and disclosed (purposively for academic work and not otherwise). The reviewed literatures were the academic work of other scholars and such work were authentically acknowledged and credited with proper referencing. From this, the objectivity and morality as they apply to research work were duly respected in order to conform to the ethical norms or requirement of a research study. During this research the ethics committee approval, reference letters from UEAB graduate school and public ministries in Kigali city Rwanda and endorsement from supervisors were availed to the researcher.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION
Summary of the Findings
This part of the work presents the summary of the study including the summary of the main findings from the field, derived conclusion and suggested recommendations. This research study was carried out the perception of the respondent’s empirical analysis of influence of quality of work life on job satisfaction of employees in from the public ministries. This work was subdivided in five chapters. ¶The first chapter was entitled the introduction. ¶The second chapter related to the literature review and studies. ¶As for the third chapter, it concentrated on the research methodology. ¶The fourth chapter was the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data. ¶In the fifth as final chapter was made of the summary of findings, the conclusion and the recommendations.
This study wanted to determine the relationship between quality of work life and job satisfaction of employees in public ministries. The research questions were designed to investigate this through the use of primary data which adopted the likert questionnaire.
The research questions were formulated as follows:
- What is the evaluation of the surveyed employees from the public ministries on the quality of work-life variables?
- Working Conditions
- Workers’ Development
- Social Integration
- Eminence Of Work-life
- Social Relevance
- Task Accomplishment
- To what extent are the surveyed respondents satisfied with their job?
These questions were discussed statistically and the stratified research sampling technique was adopted and the questionnaire utilized was downloaded, adopted and modify for the research purpose.
- The main findings demonstrated that working conditions are positively perceived by the respondents with a cumulative mean of 2.8580 with its standard deviation of .49607.
- For the workers-development variable, the research found that the respondents agree with a mean of 3.0405 with a standard deviation of .25546 which means that the respondents are appreciating their efforts based on the strategies provided by their institutions.
- A mean of 3.0188 with a standard deviation of 3.1578 demonstrated that social integration within public ministries in Rwanda has been positively evaluated. Thus, the social integration helps the employees to become the members of one family which has the common goals and objectives.
- The eminence of work-life was evaluated with a cumulative mean of 2.8134 with a standard deviation of .46561 which indicated that the public ministries in Rwanda take care of their employees. It is mentioned that there is a positive strong correlation between quality of work life and job satisfaction of employee in public ministries selected in this work.
Thus, based on the findings above the research rejected the null hypothesis formulated in introductory part of this work as There is no significant relationship between the variables of quality of work-life (working conditions, workers’ development, social integration/participation, eminence of work life, social relevance and task accomplishment) and workers’ job satisfaction among the respondents.
The study found that there is a high level of satisfaction among the employees regarding the quality of work life. The factors determining the satisfaction with the quality of work life in the organization were working conditions; develop human capacity, Social integration in the work force‖, Eminence of Work Life and Social relevance of work. All these factors are correlated with the job satisfaction in public ministries. So by improving these factors quality of work life in public ministries can be enhanced.
Specifically the main conclusions may be summarized as follows:
- The working conditions are good and are satisfying their needs workers of public ministries in Rwanda under the study.
- For the workers-development variable, the research found that the respondents agree that they appreciate the efforts on their institutions based on the strategies provided by public ministries in Rwanda for the better development of workers.
- Thus, the social integration helps the employees to become the members of one family which has the common goals and objectives.
- The eminence of work-life was evaluated positively which indicated that the public ministries in Rwanda take care of their employees. It was found that there is a positive strong correlation between quality of work life and job satisfaction of employee in public ministries selected in this work.
Anchored on the foregoing, researchers suggest the following recommendations as possible modalities to quality of work life in order to get satisfied workers towards their job.
Based on the result find in chapter four, public ministries have to improve their determinants of quality of work life:
- The working conditions because the findings mentioned that the working conditions are not adequately improving job satisfaction. The public ministries also have to improve the workers’ development strategies because development and learning are two continuous processes to enhance organizational satisfaction.
- There is a need of improving social integration within public ministries because its statements are most heterogeneously evaluated by the respondents.
- For the eminence of work life and even other measures of job satisfaction need to be studied in order to deeply enrich this topic of “the relationship between quality of work life and job satisfaction of employee.