This study analyzed the critical issues on management of Filipino inventions considering the following areas: policy implementation, motivational strategies, training and development, linkage with industry, patenting of invention, and promotion of intellectual property rights. It examined the problems and difficulties encountered by the Filipino inventors and science and technology institutions on the management of inventions. It also determined the invention-management programs and practices of successful Filipino inventors and the factors that are perceived to influence current issues on the management of Filipino inventions. The study employed qualitative research designs, such as documentary analysis, key informant interviewing, structured interview and case study participated by six successful inventors, supplemented by quantitative features. It involved thirty-one inventors and eighteen employees of government agencies such as the Intellectual Property Office and the Technology Promotion and Application Institute of the Department of Science and Technology.
Data were obtained using a survey questionnaire with open-ended questions and from observation, review of documents such as letters, minutes of meetings, formal policy statements etc., and narratives of inventors. Investigator and methodological triangulation were employed for more scientific and reliable data gathering and analysis procedures. vi The quantitative and qualitative analysis of the data generated the following findings:
1. The government-legislated policies governing Filipino inventions such as Presidential Awards for Inventions, Tax Incentives and Tax Exemptions, Duty Free Importation, Invention Development Assistance Fund, Invention Guarantee Fund, Financial and Loan Assistance from Government Banks, and Government Agencies Assistance have not created an impact in the improvement of the state of Filipino inventions, thus far. There are problems in the implementation of these policies in terms of misinterpretation and inadequate dissemination, slow processing of applications for financial assistance, inavailability of laboratories and other facilities, and attitudes.
2. The result of the assessment of the inventors and the employees of the government shows that Filipino inventions have not yet been fully developed to be globally competitive and that the management capabilities of the inventors are inadequate. The inventors involved in the study lack awareness of the effort of the government to promote the development of their invention capabilities.
3. Both groups of respondents encounter problems and difficulties on the management of inventions: vii
a. The inventors perceived the lack of government support on commercialization of patented inventions.
b. The DOST-TAPI personnel percived that most inventors are not welleducated and they are not willing to participate in the training and development provided by government. The inventors in turn consider the government training and development programs not relevant to their needs.
c. The weakest area in invention-management is linkage with industry inasmuch as the Technology Application and Promotion Institute of the Department of Science and Technology has not fully established linkage.with companies which can promote and commercialize inventions.
d. The voluminous paper work, the time element and cost involved in the application process are deterrents to obtaining patent rights.
e. The inventors lack trust in the government protection against invention piracy and counterfeiting
4. The case analysis of the successful inventors revealed the following inventionmanagement programs and practices:
a. The businesses established by these inventors are family-managed. viii
b. The successful inventors used their personal financial resources in the development and mass production of their inventions without resorting to loans from government.
c. The inventors conducted pilot study on the feasibility of their inventions before mass production.
d. The inventors joined trade fairs and exhibits to expose their inventions.
e. The inventors practiced hands-on management, acting as both manufacturer and marketing man, in the development and commercialization process of their inventions.
f. The inventors believe in education as a source of new concepts and ideas that will help them think creatively and critically and increase their potentials for success.
5. The inventors identified the following factors that influence current issues on the management of Filipino inventions: attitudes of the Filipino people toward Filipino inventions, graft and corruption, relationship of inventors with fellow inventors and with DOST-TAPI personnel and the positive personality traits such as love of God and country and honesty. The following insights are drawn based on the findings:
1. The status of technological innovations in the country continues to lag behind in terms of quality and competitiveness in spite of the pronounced policies ix governing Filipino inventions.
2. The management capabilities of Filipino inventors are inadequate resulting to low commercialization of Filipino inventions.
3. The inventors are not satisfied with the government programs on the development of the invention capabilities of Filipino inventions in terms of policy implementation and motivational strategies.
4. The inventors and the employees of science and technology institutions are struggling with varied problems and difficulties in policy implementation, motivational strategies, training and development, linkage with industry, patenting of invention and promotion of intellectual property rights.
5. Successful inventors manage their inventions with their family, use their personal financial resources in establishing their business, practice hands-on management, received awards as a result of joining trade fairs and exhibits and conduct feasibility study on their inventions before mass production for commercialization.
6. The factors that influence current issues on the management of Filipino inventions are cultural, political, and psychological in nature. x The results of this study have direct implications on the principles underlying technology development and management as well as technology research. This was developed into a mini-theory leading to the formulation of proposed inventionmanagement models for the inventors and the government agencies concerned with Filipino inventions.